Evolution Equations and Control Theory
September 2016 , Volume 5 , Issue 3
Special issue on mathematics of nonlinear acoustics: New approaches in analysis and modeling
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Over the last 12--15 years, there has been a resurgence of interest in the study of nonlinear acoustic phenomena. Using the tools of both classical mathematical analysis and computational physics, researchers have obtained a wide range of new results, some of which might be described as remarkable. As with almost all trends in science, the reasons for this revival are varied: they range from practical applications (e.g., the need to improve our understanding of high-intensity ultrasound); to the development of numerical schemes which are better at capturing the physics of nonlinear compressible flow; to new acoustic models which lend themselves to study by analytical methods.
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The equations of motion of lossless compressible nonclassical fluids under the so-called Green--Naghdi theory are considered for two classes of barotropic fluids: (i) perfect gases and (ii) liquids obeying a quadratic equation of state. An exact reduction in terms of a scalar acoustic potential and the (scalar) thermal displacement is achieved. Properties and simplifications of these model nonlinear acoustic equations for unidirectional flows are noted. Specifically, the requirement that the governing system of equations for such flows remain hyperbolic is shown to lead to restrictions on the physical parameters and/or applicability of the model. A weakly nonlinear model is proposed on the basis of neglecting only terms proportional to the square of the Mach number in the governing equations, without any further approximation or modification of the nonlinear terms. Shock formation via acceleration wave blow up is studied numerically in a one-dimensional context using a high-resolution Godunov-type finite-volume scheme, thereby verifying prior analytical results on the blow up time and contrasting these results with the corresponding ones for classical (Euler, i.e., lossless compressible) fluids.
We investigate oscillating shock waves in a tube using a higher order weakly nonlinear acoustic model. The model includes thermoviscous effects and is non isentropic. The oscillating shock waves are generated at one end of the tube by a sinusoidal driver. Numerical simulations show that at resonance a stationary state arise consisting of multiple oscillating shock waves. Off resonance driving leads to a nearly linear oscillating ground state but superimposed by bursts of a fast oscillating shock wave. Based on a travelling wave ansatz for the fluid velocity potential with an added 2'nd order polynomial in the space and time variables, we find analytical approximations to the observed single shock waves in an infinitely long tube. Using perturbation theory for the driven acoustic system approximative analytical solutions for the off resonant case are determined.
We consider the propagation of acoustic and thermal waves in classical perfect gases under a coupled, weakly-nonlinear system first derived by Blackstock. Our primary aim is to ascertain the usefulness of Blackstock's system as an approximate model of nonlinear acoustic phenomena. Working in the context of the piston problem, and using a solvable special case of the Navier--Stokes--Fourier system as our benchmark, we compare Blackstock's system against a simpler weakly-nonlinear model whose constitute equations are not coupled. In particular, traveling wave solutions (TWS)s are determined, the structure of the solution profiles is analyzed, numerical comparisons are presented, and follow-on studies are suggested.
In this paper we consider a shape optimization problem motivated by the use of high intensity focused ultrasound in lithotripsy. This leads to the problem of designing a Neumann boudary part in the context of the Westervelt equation, which is a common model in nonlinear acoustics. Based on regularity results for solutions of this equation and its linearization, we rigorously compute the shape derivative for this problem, relying on the variational framework from .
The whole set of balance equations for chemically-reacting fluid mixtures is established. The diffusion flux relative to the barycentric reference is shown to satisfy a first-order, non-linear differential equation. This in turn means that the diffusion flux is given by a balance equation, not by a constitutive assumption at the outset. Next, by way of application, limiting properties of the differential equation are shown to provide Fick's law and the Nernst-Planck equation. Moreover, known generalized forces of the literature prove to be obtained by appropriate constitutive assumptions on the stresses and the interaction forces. The entropy inequality is exploited by letting the constitutive functions of any constituent depend on temperature, mass density and their gradients thus accounting for nonlocality effects. Among the results, the generalization of the classical law of mass action is provided. The balance equation for the diffusion flux makes the system of equations for diffusion hyperbolic, provided heat conduction and viscosity are disregarded. This is ascertained by the analysis of discontinuity waves of order 2 (acceleration waves). The wave speed is derived explicitly in the case of binary mixtures.
The Westervelt wave equation is frequently used to describe non-linear propagation of finite amplitude sound. If one assumes that the medium can be treated as a thermoviscous fluid, a loss mechanism can be incorporated. In this as in previous work the authors replaced the typical loss mechanism incorporated in the Westervelt equation with a causal Time Domain Propagation Factor (TDPF) which incorporates the full dispersive effects (both frequency dependent phase velocity and attenuation) in the numerical solution while remaining in the time-domain. In the present work we investigate heat deposition due to finite amplitude propagation through a dispersive medium (e.g., human tissue). To this end, the Westervelt equation with and without the TDPF is coupled to the Pennes bioheat equation and the coupled equations are solved using the method of finite differences to determine the resulting heat deposition. We show that non-linear effects are large and that proper treatment of dispersion results in significant changes as compared to modeling the medium as a thermoviscous fluid.
In order to gain a better understanding of the behavior of finite-amplitude acoustic waves under a Brinkman-based poroacoustic model, we make use of approximations and transformations to recast our model equation into the damped Burgers equation. We examine two special case solutions of the damped Burgers equation: the approximate solution to the damped Burgers equation and the boundary value problem given an initial sinusoidal signal. We study the effects of varying the Darcy coefficient, Reynolds number, and coefficient of nonlinearity on these solutions.
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