Foundations of Data Science
June 2020 , Volume 2 , Issue 2
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This article studies how to form CUR decompositions of low-rank matrices via primarily random sampling, though deterministic methods due to previous works are illustrated as well. The primary problem is to determine when a column submatrix of a rank
Microscopy imaging of plant cells allows the elaborate analysis of sub-cellular motions of organelles. The large video data set can be efficiently analyzed by automated algorithms. We develop a novel, data-oriented algorithm, which can track organelle movements and reconstruct their trajectories on stacks of image data. Our method proceeds with three steps: (ⅰ) identification, (ⅱ) localization, and (ⅲ) linking. This method combines topological data analysis and Ensemble Kalman Filtering, and does not assume a specific motion model. Application of this method on simulated data sets shows an agreement with ground truth. We also successfully test our method on real microscopy data.
This paper describes a hierarchical learning strategy for generating sparse representations of multivariate datasets. The hierarchy arises from approximation spaces considered at successively finer scales. A detailed analysis of stability, convergence and behavior of error functionals associated with the approximations are presented, along with a well chosen set of applications. Results show the performance of the approach as a data reduction mechanism for both synthetic (univariate and multivariate) and a real dataset (geo-spatial). The sparse representation generated is shown to efficiently reconstruct data and minimize error in prediction. The approach is also shown to generalize well to unseen samples, extending its prospective application to statistical learning problems.
This article introduces a Bayesian nonparametric method for quantifying the relative evidence in a dataset in favour of the dependence or independence of two variables conditional on a third. The approach uses Pólya tree priors on spaces of conditional probability densities, accounting for uncertainty in the form of the underlying distributions in a nonparametric way. The Bayesian perspective provides an inherently symmetric probability measure of conditional dependence or independence, a feature particularly advantageous in causal discovery and not employed in existing procedures of this type.
The stochastic variational approach for geophysical fluid dynamics was introduced by Holm (Proc Roy Soc A, 2015) as a framework for deriving stochastic parameterisations for unresolved scales. This paper applies the variational stochastic parameterisation in a two-layer quasi-geostrophic model for a
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